4.1 Introduction


The classification consists of four basic sections.

  1. Clinical forms of tuberculosis.
  2. Characteristic of tubercular process.
  3. Complication of tuberculosis.
  4. Residual changes after the cured tuberculosis.

1. Clinical forms of tuberculosis.

The clinical forms of tuberculosis differ on localization and clinical and rentgenological features, with the consideration of pathogenic and pathomorphologic characteristics of the tubercular process.

  1. Tuberculous intoxication of children and adolescents.
  2. Tuberculosis of respiratory organs:
    • Primary tubercular complex;
    • Tubercular broncho-adenitis;
    • Disseminated lung tuberculosis;
    • Miliary lung tuberculosis;
    • Focus lung tuberculosis;
    • Infiltrative lung tuberculosis;
    • Caseous pneumonia;
    • Lung tuberculoma;
    • Cavernouse tuberculosis;
    • Fibrotic-cavernouse lung tuberculosis;
    • Cirrhosis;
    • Tuberculosis pleurisies (including empyema);
    • Tuberculosis of upper respiratory tract;
    • Тuberculosis of breath organs combined with professional lung diseases (Coniotuberculosis).
  3. Nonpulmonary tuberculosis (Tuberculosis of other organs and systems)
    • Tuberculous meningitis, of central nervous system
    • Tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum, mesentery lymphatic nodes
    • Tuberculosis of bones and joints
    • Genito-urinal tuberculosis
    • Cutaneous (skin) and subcutaneous
    • Euberculosis
    • Tuberculosis of peripheral lymphatic nodes
    • Eye tuberculosis
    • Tuberculosis of other organs

2. Characteristic of tubercular process.

Characteristics of process of tuberculosis specified according to process localization, clinical rentgenological signs and presence or absence in diagnostic material of the patients Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT).
Localization and extent specified:

  • in lungs according to lobes and segments
  • in other organs, according to localization of the damage.


  1. infiltration, disintegration, dissemination;
  2. resolution, condensation, scarring, calcification.

Bacterial expectoration:

  1. with mycobacterium tuberculosis expectoration (MBT+)
  2. without mycobacterium tuberculosis expectoration (MBT-).

3. Complication of tuberculosis.

  • Hemoptysis and lung hemorrhage,
  • spontaneous pneumothorax,
  • lung-heart insufficiency,
  • atelectasis,
  • amyloidosis,
  • fistula and other.

Residual changes after the cured tuberculosis.

4. Residual changes after treated tuberculosis.
Residual changes breath organs:

  • fibrous,
  • fibrotic-focus,
  • bullous-distrophy,
  • calcinates in lungs and lymphatic nodes,
  • pleuro-pneumosclerosis,
  • cirrhosis,
  • condition after surgical,
  • operations and other.

Other organs:

  • scarring changes in different organs and their consequences,
  • calcification,
  • condition after surgical operations.

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